Intradermal lipopolysaccharide challenge as an acute in vivo inflammatory model in healthy volunteers
. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
, https://doi.org/10.1111/bcp.14999. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Aims: Whereas intravenous administration of Toll-like receptor 4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to human volunteers is frequently used in clinical pharmacology studies, systemic use of LPS has practical limitations. We aimed to characterize the intradermal LPS response in healthy volunteers, and as such qualify the method as local inflammation model for clinical pharmacology studies.
Methods: Eighteen healthy male volunteers received 2 or 4 intradermal 5 ng LPS injections and 1 saline injection on the forearms. The LPS response was evaluated by noninvasive (perfusion, skin temperature and erythema) and invasive assessments (cellular and cytokine responses) in skin biopsy and blister exudate.
Results: LPS elicited a visible response and returned to baseline at 48 hours. Erythema, perfusion and temperature were statistically significant (P < .0001) over a 24-hour time course compared to saline. The protein response was dominated by an acute interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8 and tumour necrosis factor response followed by IL-1β, IL-10 and interferon-γ. The cellular response consisted of an acute neutrophil influx followed by different monocyte subsets and dendritic cells.
Discussion: Intradermal LPS administration in humans causes an acute, localized and transient inflammatory reaction that is well-tolerated by healthy volunteers. This may be a valuable inflammation model for evaluating the pharmacological activity of anti-inflammatory investigational compounds in proof of pharmacology studies.
Characterization of Human Dendritic Cell Subsets in the Gingiva of Chronic Periodontitis
. Journal of Dental Research
, 100 (12) , pp. 1330-1336. Publisher's VersionAbstract
As the most potent cells activating and polarizing naive T cells, dendritic cells (DCs) are of major importance in the induction of immunity and tolerance. DCs are a heterogeneous population of antigen-presenting cells that are widely distributed in lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues. Murine studies have highlighted the important role of oral DCs and Langerhans cells (LCs) in orchestrating the physiological homeostasis of the oral mucosa. DCs are also critically involved in pathological conditions such as periodontal diseases, in which gingival DCs appear to have special localization and function. While the characterization of human DCs in health and disease has been extensively investigated in various tissues, this topic was rarely studied in human gingiva. Here, we employed an up-to-date approach to characterize by flow cytometry the gingival DCs of 27 healthy subjects and 21 periodontal patients. Four distinct subsets of mononuclear phagocytes were identified in healthy gingiva: conventional DC type 1 (cDC1), cDC2, plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs), and LCs. In periodontitis patients, the frequencies of gingival LCs and pDCs were dysregulated, as LCs decreased, whereas pDCs increased in the diseased gingiva. This shift in the prevalence of DCs was accompanied by increased expression of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)–1β, interferon (IFN)–α, and IFN-γ, while the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was suppressed. We further found that smoking, a known risk factor of periodontitis, specifically reduces gingival LCs in healthy individuals, indicating a possible role of LCs in the elevated severity of periodontitis in smokers. Collectively, this work reveals the various DC subsets residing in the human gingiva and the impact of periodontitis, as well as smoking, on the prevalence of each subset. Our findings provide a foundation toward understanding the role of human DCs in orchestrating physiological oral immunity and set the stage for the evaluation and modulation of shifts in immunity associated with periodontitis.
Monocytes, Macrophages, Dendritic Cells and Neutrophils: an update on lifespan kinetics in health and disease
Phagocytes form a family of immune cells that play a crucial role in tissue maintenance and help orchestrate the immune response. This family of cells can be separated by their nuclear morphology into mononuclear and polymorphonuclear phagocytes. The generation of these cells in the bone marrow, to the blood and finally into tissues is a tightly regulated process. Ensuring the adequate production of these cells and their timely removal, is key for both the initiation and resolution of inflammation. Insight into the kinetic profiles of innate myeloid cells during steady state and pathology will permit the rational development of therapies to boost the production of these cells in times of need or reduce them when detrimental.